Isolation of e. coli 0157:h7 from milk and cattle faeces from urban dairy farming and non dairy farming neighbour households in Dagoretti division, Nairobi, Kenya: prevalence and risk factors

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of E. coli 0157:H7 in milk and cattle faecal samples dairy and non dairy neighbouring households and to relate this prevalence to the risk to human health. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Urban and peri-urban households of Dagoretti, Division, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Dairy farming households and non dairy farming neighbouring households. Results: E coli 0157:H7 was isolated from milk samples at three of 136 non-dairy neighbour households (2.2 % C.1.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells in breast milk: association with immunosuppression and vitamin A deficiency.

Breast milk samples from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive women were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to determine the prevalence and determinants of HIV-1-infected cells in breast milk. Breast milk samples (212) were collected from 107 women, and 58% of the samples had detectable HIV-1 DNA. The proportion of HIV-1-infected cells in the milk samples ranged from 1 to 3255/10(4) cells. Breast milk samples with detectable HIV-1 DNA were more likely to be from women with absolute CD4 cell counts of < 400 (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-7.0).

Food borne diseases in Kenya

Objectives: To determine the occurrence of foodborne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting:. Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Foodborne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listera monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxin, plant and animal poisons.

Studies in the and control of granulosus epidemiology Echinococcus in Kenya

Hydatid disease (hydatidosis, echinococcosis) caused by the larval stage of the taeniid, Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786), is a cyclozoonosis of major medical and veterinary importance in most countries of the world. In nature, the disease is primarily transmitted between wild carnivores and herbivores, but of importance to man is the domestic cycle which involves dogs and domestic livestock. Control of the disease has been instituted in more than twelve countries.

Studies in the epidemiology and control of echinococcus granulosus in Kenya

Hydatid disease (hydatidosis, echinococcosis) caused by the larval stage of the taeniid, Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786), is a cyclozoonosis of major medical and veterinary importance in most countries of the world. In nature, the disease is primarily transmitted between wild carnivores and herbivores, but of importance to man is the domestic cycle which involves dogs and domestic livestock. Control of the disease has been instituted in more than twelve countries.

Functional Characteristics Of Lactobacillus Spp. From Traditional Maasai Fermented Milk Products In Kenya

In this study functional characteristics of 23 representative Lactobacillus strains isolated from the Maasai traditional fermented milk ‘Kule naoto’ were determined. The Lb. acidophilus group strains showed resistance to gastric juice and bile. In addition, some Lb. acidophilus strains expressed bile salt hydrolase activity, and had ability to assimilate cholesterol in vitro. In-vitro adhesion to HT29 MTX cells of up to 70% was recorded. Lb.

A comparison of organochlorine pesticide residues in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood, cord blood, and human milk from mother/infant pairs

A total of 41 samples of maternal blood, milk, subcutaneous fat and umbilical cord blood were collected from mothers giving birth by Caesarean operation at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi in 1986. The samples were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The main contaminants found in all the samples were p,p'-DDT (100%), p,p'-DDE (100%), o,p'-DDT (59%), dieldrin (27%), transnonachlor (15%), beta-HCH (12%) and lindane (2%) of all the samples analyzed. Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) residues were not detected in any of the samples.

Radio and small scale farming in Murang’a a study of mugambo wa murimi program in Inooro Fm

This research is based on the fact that Murang‘a County seems to be lagging behind in terms of farming despite educational programs running on radio aired in their own vernacular language. A number of visits were done in different parts of this county. Several were people interviewed including farmers and leaders from different institutions. The research found out that there is lack of paradigm shift by the farmers.

An analysis of land use potential in arid and semi-arid areas: - central location, isiolo county

Arid and semi-arid areas are part of the global ecosystem that completes the whole. Despite their aridity conditions, ASALs are endowed with a variety of resources ranging from fertile soils, minerals, oil, wildlife, and rivers among others. The maintenance of land productivity in these fragile environments is a particular concern for many countries with large portions of their land in arid areas. This study which has been contextualised in Isiolo, Central location aims at analysing the land use potential with the aim of ensuring optimal utilisation.

Transportation and Characteristics of Urban Travel in Nairobi:

Market access measures employed by economists and spatial analysts may not adequately capture local market or product-specific variation. Analysis is conducted on the effects of market access on two commodities in the Kenyan highlands: milk and bean seeds. Both simple and composite measures of market access are applied to spatial price formation models to create spatial price decay functions in the context of household-specific transaction costs. Composite measures of market access include negative exponential (using travel time or distance as cost) and gravity measures.

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