The socio-economic impact of important camel diseases as perceived by a pastoralist community in Kenya

This paper presents the results of a study conducted in a pastoral community in Kenya using partici¬patory appraisal approaches. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of camel trypanosomosis (surra) according to the perceptions of the pastoralists. Four livestock grazing units were conveniently selected and in each of them, three groups of key informants comprising five to eight persons were selected for the participatory exercises.

Ampicillin Resistance And Extended Spectrum Β-lactamases In Enterobacteriaceae Isolated From Raw And Spontaneously Fermented Camel Milk

The prevalence of ampicillin resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamases(ESBL)in the dominant Enterobacteriaceae from raw and spontaneously fermented camel milk (suusac) in Kenya and Somalia was characterized both phenotypically and genotypically.
Globally important SHV and CTX-M-type extended spectrum β–lactamases (ESBLs)were tested.

Risk factors for symptoms of gastrointestinal illness in rural town Isiolo, Kenya

This study assesses risk factors for food-borne gastrointestinal illness indicated by diarrhoea and/or vomiting using 14-day recalls among children and young adults. The study was set in Isiolo, a rural town of Kenya, inhabited mainly by pastoralists of different ethnic groups. The preparation methods of milk at the household level were also investigated. The study was cross-sectional and involved 900 participants from randomly selected households. They were interviewed using a structured questionnaire.

Clinical and pathological investigations on camel skin diseases in some camel rich districts of Northern Kenya

Clinical and pathological investigations on camel skin diseases were undertaken in
Turkana, Samburu, Isiolo and Marsabit districts in northern Kenya between October 1990
and November 1991. Nomadic camel herds were selected based on accessibility. The origin,
domestication, population, distribution, socio-economic importance, constraints to
development of camel husbandry in Kenya, and diseases of the camel (emphasizing on the
skin diseases) are reviewed.
Out of 11,196 camels examined, 53.2 per cent had skin diseases/lesions. All camel

Comparison of California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations for detection of camel (Camelus dromedarius) mastitis in Ethiopia.

A total of 956 quarter milk samples from 253 traditionally managed lactating camels were collected aseptically from Negele (Borena Region), Dire Dawa, and Gewane (Afar Region), Ethiopia, according to multi-stage sampling. The quarter milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations. Five hundred and seventy one (59.7%) quarter milk samples had microorganisms. Of these, 428 (75.0%) had isolates that were identified as major pathogens (MAP) and 143 (25.0%) as minor pathogens (MIP).

The effects of non-genetic factors and estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends for milk yield in Ayrshire cattle in Kenya

Dairy cattle production in Kenya has been growing into an important agricultural sector, but it still faces numerous difficulties in environmental constraints. The purpose of this study was to identify significant non-genetic effects on milk production to give advices for farm management and estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for milk traits.

The epidemiology of camelpox and the development of camelpox vaccine

The role of disease in camel husbandry is little understood although it is known that calf mortality is the most serious problem faced by the people who rear camels. Camelpox is the most serious viral disease affecting camel calves in many parts of the world but its clinical manifestation and prevalence have not been examined in Kenya. Camel contagious ecthyma, another closely related and sometimes indistinguishable condition to camelpox has also not been fully investigated. Basic biological characterisation of the camelpox virus has been performed but the propagation and

Novel Characteristics Of African Streptococcus Infantarius Subsp. Infantarius Potentially Responsible For The Predominance Over Other Lactic Acid Bacteria In Spontaneously Fermented Camel Milk

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius, a pathogenic species of the
Streptococcus bovis/ Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC), was unexpectedly found to be predominating in spon-taneously fermented East-African camel milk(suusac) over other lactic acid bacteria including Streptococcus thermophilus. Lactose metabolism of currently known SBSEC and the classic yoghurt bacterium
S. thermophilus is reported to differ, not justifying the predominance observed. Bacte-
riocin production by SBSEC is described and might be a factor contributing to the predominance.

Phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus from raw and spontaneously fermented camel milk.

Aims: To pheno- and genotypically characterise Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw and fermented camel milk from Kenya and Somali for their antibiotic resistance.
Methodology: Microdilution assays to determine minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were done using to 20 different antibiotics. Further tests with selected antibiotics were done using disk diffusion test. Genotypic antibiotic resistance was tested using by microarray hybridization with selected isolates and consequent screening of antibiotic resistance genes by PCR.

Dairy development and dairy marketing in sub-Saharan Africa Some preliminary indicators of policy impacts

OVER THE PAST TWO DECADES, sub-Saharan Africa experienced relatively low growth rates in the production of dairy products compared with the average for all developing countries. Total consumption of dairy products grew relatively much faster during the same period. However, available data suggest that the consumption of goat and sheep milk declined in East Africa between 1963 and 1980 and that of camel's milk stagnated. Only the consumption of cow's milk increased fairly rapidly in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades.

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