Detection of toxigenic strains of Bacillus cereus and other Bacillus spp. with an improved cytotoxicity assay

An improved qualitative cell cytotoxicity assay for the detection of Bacillus cereus emetic and enterotoxin is described. The presence of toxin in culture supernatant fluids was detected by measurement with the tetrazolium salt MTT, as it adversely affects the metabolic status of cultured CHO cells. Psychrotrophic B. cereus isolates (65) were assessed for toxin production using the cytotoxicity assay, and 91% of culture supernatant fluids were cytotoxic. Toxin assessment using BCET-RPLA and ELISA immunoassays indicated that 51% and 85% of the cultures, respectively, were toxigenic.

Smallholder dairy production in high altitude Nyandarua milk-shed in Kenya: Status, challenges and opportunities

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement.

Household’s knowledge, attitude and food handling practices, consumption of traditional fermented milk and risk factors for adult overweight and obesity in Isiolo central sub county

Several communities’ process traditional fermented milk but there is insufficient information on the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) related to food handling among households that produce and those that do not produce traditional fermented milk. Studies on milk consumption have linked fermented milk consumption to reducing the risk of obesity and overweight among several populations.

Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bacteria Isolated from the Nasal Cavity of Camels in Samburu, Nakuru, and Isiolo Counties of Kenya.

This study was designed to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from the nasal cavity of healthy camels. A total of 255 nasal samples (swabs) were collected in Isiolo, Samburu, and Nakuru counties, Kenya, from which 404 bacterial isolates belonging to various genera and species were recovered. The bacterial isolates included Bacillus (39.60%), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (29.95%), Streptococcus species other than Streptococcus agalactiae (25.74%), coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (3.96%), and Streptococcus agalactiae (0.74%).

An evaluation of the quality of care given at charitable children's institutions in Westlands district, Nairobi County, Kenya

The study was to evaluate the quality of care given at charitable children's institutions in Westlands District, Nairobi County; Kenya. Since Kenya attained independence in 1963, cities and towns like Nairobi have seen a large influx of inhabitants due to rural -urban migration, resulting high crime rates, poverty, family disruptions, poor physical and mental health due to stress and under nutrition. The advent of mYl AIDS has compounded the problem with many children orphaned, while many others are born infected. There is also the problem of unwanted pregnancies such as teenage pregnancy.

Effects of credit risk management on the financial performance of commercial banks in kenya

This study was undertaken to analyze the effects of credit risk management practices on the performance of Financial Banking Institutions. The study attempted to establish if there exists any relationship between the credit risk management determinants by use of CAMEL indicators and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The study reviewed several literatures in line with the area of study. This review enabled the researcher to demonstrate and familiarize with the area of study. The review also helped identify gaps in previous studies.

Substitution of milk with high-energy high-protein lactic fermented maize-bean mixture in rehabilitation of severely malnourished children

High-energy milk (HEM) consisting of cow's milk, oil and sugar is used in the rehabilitation diet of children at the Mwanamugimu Nutrition Unit. In this . study a mixture of lactic fermented maize and beans was, used as a substitute for the HEM, in a bid to reduce rehabilitation costs. The maize-bean flour containing 14.6 % protein was used to prepare a high-energy high-protein porridge (HEP), containing 15% total solids. This was liquefied using of Millet Amylase Rich Flour (ARF). The energy and protein density for the HEP was found to be 0.9 kcaljml and 0.027g Iml respectively.

The prevalence and risk factors for hydatidosis in man, sheep and goats in northwesternTurkana district, Kenya

Hydatidosis is a cyclo-zoonotic disease caused by larval stages of the parasitic tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The disease is a public health importance among the Turkana pastoral community. The previous estimates of hydatidosis prevalence in livestock in northern Turkana have recorded inconsistent estimates over time because they depended on slaughter-house data. The socioeconomic aspects of hydatidosis including knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) that favour the transmission of the disease in endemic setting are inadequately studied.

Climate variability and change on vulnerability and adaptation among Turkana pastoralists in North-Western Kenya

Climate variability and change is increasingly being recognized as a critical challenge to pastoral production systems in the arid and semi-arid rangelands. The projected climate scenarios are expected to aggravate some of the existing vulnerability of natural resource-dependent communities, and likely to impose new risks beyond the range of current experiences. An explicit understanding of households‟ vulnerability to climate variability and adaptation strategies is, therefore, crucial for targeting appropriate resilience interventions in pastoral environments.

Factors influencing inter-clan conflict in northern kenya: a case of wajir

Inter-clan conflicts have at best prevented people from developing their bountiful human and natural potential. Communities in Northern Kenya have co-existed peacefully since their migrations and settlement. They have traded, intermarried and shared many social festivals. However, the same communities have experienced unending conflicts spanning two or more decades despite existence of institutions that ought to have solved the conflicts. The main objective of this study was to establish the factors influencing inter-clan conflict in Northern Kenya, with a focus on Wajir County.

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